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io8                            BYZANTINE CHURCHES                          CHAP.
insightj and involved so gross a miscarriage of justice3 that from that day forth the chain lost its reputation and has hung ever since a dishonoured oracle on the dead arms of the cypresss like a criminal on a gibbet. Although this tale cannot be traced to its Byzantine sourcej it is manifestly an echo of the renown which the precincts of the mosque once enjoyed as a throne of judgment before Turkish times, and serves to prove that Hoja Mustapha Pasha Mesjedi is indeed the old church of S. Andrew in Krisei.
The earliest reference to the locality known as Krisis occurs in the narrative of the martyrdom of S. Andrew of Crete given by Symeon Metaphrastes,1 who flourished in the latter part of the ninth century, A devoted iconodule, S. Andrew^came from his native island to Constantinople, in the reign of Constantine Copronymus (740-775)5 expressly to rebuke the emperor for opposing the use of eikons in religious worship. As might have been anticipated, the zeal and courage of the saint only incurred cruel and insulting treatment, and at length a martyr's death, For^ while his persecutors were dragging him one day along the streets of the city in derision, a half-witted fisherman stabbed him dead with a knife. So strong was the feeling prevalent at the time against the champion of the cause of eikons that his body was flung among the corpses of murderers and thieves ; but eventually his admirers succeeded in removing it from its foul surroundings and buried it *in a sacred place which was named Krisis' (aV Sva iepbv TOTTOV 6 O7ro?o9 eirtwofjui&ro Kpww).2 It is evident from this statement that the name Krisis was applied to the locality before the interment of S. Andrew there ; how long before^ it is impossible to say, but probably from early times. The body of the martyr was laid in or. beside one of the two churches dedicated to saints also named S, Andrew, which stood on the Seventh Hill of the city already in the sixth century?
e, Ptttr* Grace, torn. 115, Mcnsis Oetobr* p. 1128. Synax,, October 17. Mansi, tiacnmm coticillorum no*ua el amplimma Mllectio, viii. p. 906,